First and foremost the netsuke used to be an item of application, worn proudly via its proprietor. Netsuke were worn in Japan for hundreds of years. This examine examines previous kinds and new. It offers an entire historical past; artists' names; fabrics used; and the subject material of netsuke. Download e-book for kindle: Portmeirion pottery developed from present store designs for the Portmeirion vacation village in north Wales to an international company due to the layout aptitude of Susan Williams-Ellis.
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Cognitive science - Wikipedia
A major question in the study of cognitive development is the extent to which certain abilities are innate or learned. This is often framed in terms of the nature and nurture debate. The nativist view emphasizes that certain features are innate to an organism and are determined by its genetic endowment. The empiricist view, on the other hand, emphasizes that certain abilities are learned from the environment.
Although clearly both genetic and environmental input is needed for a child to develop normally, considerable debate remains about how genetic information might guide cognitive development. In the area of language acquisition , for example, some such as Steven Pinker  have argued that specific information containing universal grammatical rules must be contained in the genes, whereas others such as Jeffrey Elman and colleagues in Rethinking Innateness have argued that Pinker's claims are biologically unrealistic.
They argue that genes determine the architecture of a learning system, but that specific "facts" about how grammar works can only be learned as a result of experience. Memory allows us to store information for later retrieval. Memory is often thought of as consisting of both a long-term and short-term store. Long-term memory allows us to store information over prolonged periods days, weeks, years.
We do not yet know the practical limit of long-term memory capacity. Short-term memory allows us to store information over short time scales seconds or minutes.
Memory is also often grouped into declarative and procedural forms. Declarative memory —grouped into subsets of semantic and episodic forms of memory —refers to our memory for facts and specific knowledge, specific meanings, and specific experiences e. Procedural memory allows us to remember actions and motor sequences e. Cognitive scientists study memory just as psychologists do, but tend to focus in more on how memory bears on cognitive processes , and the interrelationship between cognition and memory. One example of this could be, what mental processes does a person go through to retrieve a long-lost memory?
Or, what differentiates between the cognitive process of recognition seeing hints of something before remembering it, or memory in context and recall retrieving a memory, as in "fill-in-the-blank"? Perception is the ability to take in information via the senses , and process it in some way. Vision and hearing are two dominant senses that allow us to perceive the environment.
Some questions in the study of visual perception, for example, include: One tool for studying visual perception is by looking at how people process optical illusions. The image on the right of a Necker cube is an example of a bistable percept, that is, the cube can be interpreted as being oriented in two different directions. The study of haptic tactile , olfactory , and gustatory stimuli also fall into the domain of perception. Action is taken to refer to the output of a system.
In humans, this is accomplished through motor responses. Spatial planning and movement, speech production, and complex motor movements are all aspects of action.
Consciousness is the awareness whether something is an external object or something within oneself. This helps the mind having the ability to experience or to feel a sense of self. Many different methodologies are used to study cognitive science. As the field is highly interdisciplinary, research often cuts across multiple areas of study, drawing on research methods from psychology , neuroscience , computer science and systems theory. In order to have a description of what constitutes intelligent behavior, one must study behavior itself. This type of research is closely tied to that in cognitive psychology and psychophysics.
By measuring behavioral responses to different stimuli, one can understand something about how those stimuli are processed. Lewandowski and Strohmetz review a collection of innovative uses of behavioral measurement in psychology including behavioral traces, behavioral observations, and behavioral choice.
Behavioral observations involve the direct witnessing of the actor engaging in the behavior e.
Behavioral choices are when a person selects between two or more options e. Brain imaging involves analyzing activity within the brain while performing various tasks. This allows us to link behavior and brain function to help understand how information is processed. Different types of imaging techniques vary in their temporal time-based and spatial location-based resolution.
Brain imaging is often used in cognitive neuroscience. Computational models require a mathematically and logically formal representation of a problem. Computer models are used in the simulation and experimental verification of different specific and general properties of intelligence. Computational modeling can help us understand the functional organization of a particular cognitive phenomenon. There are two basic approaches to cognitive modeling.
The first is focused on abstract mental functions of an intelligent mind and operates using symbols, and the second, which follows the neural and associative properties of the human brain, is called subsymbolic. Research methods borrowed directly from neuroscience and neuropsychology can also help us to understand aspects of intelligence.
These methods allow us to understand how intelligent behavior is implemented in a physical system. Cognitive science has given rise to models of human cognitive bias and risk perception, and has been influential in the development of behavioral finance , part of economics. It has also given rise to a new theory of the philosophy of mathematics , and many theories of artificial intelligence , persuasion and coercion. It has made its presence known in the philosophy of language and epistemology as well as constituting a substantial wing of modern linguistics.
Fields of cognitive science have been influential in understanding the brain's particular functional systems and functional deficits ranging from speech production to auditory processing and visual perception. It has made progress in understanding how damage to particular areas of the brain affect cognition, and it has helped to uncover the root causes and results of specific dysfunction, such as dyslexia , anopia , and hemispatial neglect.
The cognitive sciences began as an intellectual movement in the s, called the cognitive revolution. However, although these early writers contributed greatly to the philosophical discovery of mind and this would ultimately lead to the development of psychology, they were working with an entirely different set of tools and core concepts than those of the cognitive scientist. The modern culture of cognitive science can be traced back to the early cyberneticists in the s and s, such as Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts , who sought to understand the organizing principles of the mind.
McCulloch and Pitts developed the first variants of what are now known as artificial neural networks , models of computation inspired by the structure of biological neural networks. Another precursor was the early development of the theory of computation and the digital computer in the s and s.
The modern computer, or Von Neumann machine , would play a central role in cognitive science, both as a metaphor for the mind, and as a tool for investigation. The first instance of cognitive science experiments being done at an academic institution took place at MIT Sloan School of Management , established by J. Licklider working within the social psychology department and conducting experiments using computer memory as models for human cognition.
In , Noam Chomsky published a scathing review of B. Skinner 's book Verbal Behavior. At the time, Skinner's behaviorist paradigm dominated the field of psychology within the United States. Most psychologists focused on functional relations between stimulus and response, without positing internal representations. Chomsky argued that in order to explain language, we needed a theory like generative grammar , which not only attributed internal representations but characterized their underlying order.
The term cognitive science was coined by Christopher Longuet-Higgins in his commentary on the Lighthill report , which concerned the then-current state of Artificial Intelligence research. In , with assistance from Professor Stillings, Vassar College became the first institution in the world to grant an undergraduate degree in Cognitive Science. In the s and early s, as access to computers increased, artificial intelligence research expanded.
Researchers such as Marvin Minsky would write computer programs in languages such as LISP to attempt to formally characterize the steps that human beings went through, for instance, in making decisions and solving problems, in the hope of better understanding human thought , and also in the hope of creating artificial minds. This approach is known as "symbolic AI". Eventually the limits of the symbolic AI research program became apparent. For instance, it seemed to be unrealistic to comprehensively list human knowledge in a form usable by a symbolic computer program.
The late 80s and 90s saw the rise of neural networks and connectionism as a research paradigm. Under this point of view, often attributed to James McClelland and David Rumelhart , the mind could be characterized as a set of complex associations, represented as a layered network. Critics argue that there are some phenomena which are better captured by symbolic models, and that connectionist models are often so complex as to have little explanatory power. Recently symbolic and connectionist models have been combined, making it possible to take advantage of both forms of explanation.
For example, scientists such as Jeff Elman, Liz Bates, and Annette Karmiloff-Smith have posited that networks in the brain emerge from the dynamic interaction between them and environmental input. Some of the more recognized names in cognitive science are usually either the most controversial or the most cited. Within philosophy, some familiar names include Daniel Dennett , who writes from a computational systems perspective,  John Searle , known for his controversial Chinese room argument,  and Jerry Fodor , who advocates functionalism.
In the realm of linguistics, Noam Chomsky and George Lakoff have been influential both have also become notable as political commentators. In artificial intelligence , Marvin Minsky , Herbert A. Simon , and Allen Newell are prominent. Popular names in the discipline of psychology include George A. Anthropologists Dan Sperber , Edwin Hutchins , and Scott Atran , have been involved in collaborative projects with cognitive and social psychologists, political scientists and evolutionary biologists in attempts to develop general theories of culture formation, religion, and political association.
Computational theories with models and simulations have also been developed, by the likes of David Rumelhart , James McClelland , Philip Johnson-Laird , and so on. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the journal, see Cognitive Science journal.
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Mind and Brain portal Thinking portal. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. Increasing Emotions and Storytelling". The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology. Cambridge University Press, New York. Semantics, Phonetics, Pragmatics, and Human Communication".
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An Introduction to Linguistics as Cognitive Science, 2nd edition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Measuring behavior in psychological science".