As of this writing the Law for Hiring Judges and its amendments of 4 October , 7 February , and 9 May are in full force and form the basis for hiring judges. The Executive Rules of Procedure of 22 December subjected such hiring to passing an entrance examination and successful completion of an apprenticeship program, the duration of which ranges between one and two years. The law does not limit hiring to men only but does not specify in what capacity women will be functioning, other than an advisory one.
Currently, judges are selected in accordance with the Guidelines on the Recruitment, Selection, and Internship for Judicial Candidates and the Hiring of Judges. From to , the judiciary was run by the Supreme Judicial Council which was composed of the head of the Supreme Court, the Prosecutor General both of whom were appointed by the Supreme Leader , and three judges elected by the entire body of judges in the country. The Council had the power to hire and dismiss judges in accordance with the law. The constitutional reforms of substituted the Supreme Judicial Council with one person, the Head of the Judiciary.
The Supreme Leader, whose mandate is not subject to popular vote, appoints the Head of the Judiciary for a 5-year term. The latter has significant power to influence the dismissal of judges. Dismissal cases are referred to three types of disciplinary courts, presided over by judges appointed by the Head of the Judiciary, who has veto power over any decisions made by the relevant courts.
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The process does not necessarily involve the defendant and the final decision, left to the Head of the Judiciary, is not subject to appeal. The charges upon which the accused were arraigned were often extremely broad. Defendants generally had no access to legal counsel nor to their file and the evidence against them prior to the trial. Accusation witnesses could come forward the day of the trial to give evidence against the accused, but in most cases, defense witnesses were not allowed in court.
There was no automatic right of a defendant to cross-examine witnesses or to know the source of the evidence against him. The defendant had an opportunity to state his side of the matter and attempt to refute what was said against him, but the final decision was solely up to the discretion of the religious judge. The judgments of the Revolutionary Courts were not subject to appeal.
The convicts were generally executed within a few hours of the judgment. The right to liberty and security of the person. The right not to be subjected to arbitrary arrest and detention. The right not to be punished for any crime on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence, under national or international law, at the time it was committed. The right to be presumed innocent until found guilty by a competent and impartial tribunal in accordance with law. The right not to be subjected to torture and to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
The right to examine, or have examined the witnesses against one and to obtain the attendance and examination of defense witnesses under the same conditions as witnesses for the prosecution. Whether in his youth in his native Kurdistan in Iraq, or as an adult in Iran, where his family immigrated, Mr. Salar Jaff was active and involved in politics. He was a man of action and a victim of revolutionary justice. Salar Jaff, son of Davud Beyk leader of the Jaff tribe and former member of the parliament, is among the seven men whose execution was reported by the Pars News Agency on March 5, Additional information has been drawn from communications sent by Mr.
Jaff is also one of the victims listed in a March 13, , Amnesty International report. The report lists defendants who were convicted by Revolutionary Tribunals in the period from their inception until August 12, The list of victims and charges is drawn from sources including translations of indictments, reports of trials carried out by local and foreign media, and the bulletins of the official Pars News Agency reports. Jaff is one of 55 persons mentioned in the Memoirs of Ayatollah Khalkhali, the first post-revolution religious judge and head of the Islamic Revolutionary Tribunal.
Salar Jaff, the oldest child of a well-known family from the Jaff tribe, was born in Iraq in His brother refers to him as a wise and well-respected person who had the respect of his community. Jaff was active since his youth. He was the representative and spokesman of the students at his secondary school and became prominent in the small city of Khanaqeen in Iraq. In , unstable conditions and insecurity in Iraq led the Jaff family to immigrate to Iran and settle in Kermanshah where Mr. Jaff continued his studies. He later on accompanied his sick father to Tehran and started agricultural and commercial ventures.
His modern farming methods drew, according to his brother, the attention of visiting foreign delegations. Jaff was also active politically in the Pan-Iranist party and later in the Iran-e Novin party, where he was in charge of all Iranian tribes. He was elected as the Kermanshah representative to the Majless, Iran's parliament, and served his constituency until the revolution. According to his brother, Mr. Jaff was also involved in Iraqi politics and supported the Kurdish opposition to Iraq's government.
He collected medicine and arms for the Pesh Merga the Kurdish militia and took foreign journalists to Kurdistan so that they could witness people's suffering and report on their struggle for freedom. Based on available information, Mr. Salar Jaff was arrested soon after the Revolution for his involvement in demonstrations in the town of Paveh in Kurdistan. Before the revolution, and following a series of widespread demonstrations accross Iran, Mr.
Jaff organized demonstrations in various cities of Kurdistan to support the Shah. During the very last days of these demonstrations in Paveh, several people were killed in clashes between the opposition and the demonstrators. Jaff's brother, as the tensions continued, opponents to the Shah initiated a campaign of disinformation in the media, and called, unsuccessfully, on the parliament to lift Mr. Based on news reports, the Islamic Revolutionary Tribunal of Iran was in session for nine hours on March 4, , deliberating seven cases, including Mr.
The specific circumstances of the trial remain unknown. Jaff in the list of officials he had tried and noted:.
Human Rights & Democracy for Iran :: Salar Jaff: One Person’s Story
The charges brought against Mr. Jaff were not announced in the report of the Pars News Agency. Corruption is what leads to the decline, destruction, and the deviation of society from its natural course. The executed persons had participated in the spread of corruption and prostitution, distribution of heroin and opium, and promotion of licentious behavior, godlessness, murder, treason, flattery, and, in sum, they possessed all vile attributes.
The validity of the criminal charges brought against this defendant cannot be ascertained in the absence of the basic guarantees of a fair trial. The report in Kayhan referred to several documents and confessions of eyewitnesses during the trial of Mr. Jaff and six other defendants, but did not provide details about the testimonies or the documents and whether they related to Mr. Kayhan March 5, Jaff noted that the demonstration he was charged with organizing and attending was peaceful and denied having shot at the demonstrators. Kayhan , February 13, The Islamic Revolutionary Tribunal declared Mr.
Based on the Quran, their life was a waste …. Not one of them could be acquitted according to the Quran. Case Date of Execution: The jurisdiction of the Revolutionary Courts was limited to 6 categories of offenses: Detentions, interrogations, and trials: Appeal processes The judgments of the Revolutionary Courts were not subject to appeal. Human rights violations Based on the available information, some or all of the following human rights may have been violated in this case: The right to due process The right to be presumed innocent until found guilty by a competent and impartial tribunal in accordance with law.
Pre-trial detention rights The right to know promptly and in detail the nature and cause of the charges against one. I was a bit confused several times but pushed on and all became clear. If you like thrillers, medieval curses, murder and all those lovely things, you will adore Crown of Stars which will draw you in a keep you there until it is finished.
Did I mention it is part of a trilogy? Jul 17, George Black rated it it was amazing. Crown of Stars is just as good as, or even better than, the first volume of Sophie Jaff's trilogy. It's a genre-bender serial killer thriller?
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But I made an exception for these. They're total page-turners, the two main characters and their very different social milieu are convincingly drawn, and the plotting is tight and sharp - which is especially difficult to do when you're alternating between two parallel and the Crown of Stars is just as good as, or even better than, the first volume of Sophie Jaff's trilogy. They're total page-turners, the two main characters and their very different social milieu are convincingly drawn, and the plotting is tight and sharp - which is especially difficult to do when you're alternating between two parallel and then converging plot-lines hundreds of years apart.
From the first page on, Crown of Stars is like getting on a train that steadily picks up speed and never slows down until it reaches its very satisfying cliff-hanger conclusion. Can't wait to see how Jaff pulls all the threads together in the final volume!
Jun 27, Lisa rated it it was amazing Shelves: Crown of Stars is the second book in the Nightsong Trilogy. It can be read as a standalone, which I am thankful for since I have not read the first book. It is a mix of fantasy and psychological thriller and is a true good versus evil story. The plot shifts between Margaret in the 17th century and Katherine in the present.
Margaret is the daughter of a Traveler and has inherited supernatural gifts from her. The community is afraid of her and has shunned her. She is finally able to secure a position as an alewife in the house of a young, wealthy lord whom she falls for. Katherine is living in New York City and trying to raise Lucas whose mother, and her best friend, was killed. To complicate matters she is now pregnant and the father, whom she loves, has abandoned her since the attack that killed her friend. Once he finds out about the child, he decides to bring Katherine and Lucas to London when he moves there for a new job.
Katherine is hoping this will be a fresh start for all of them. The change of scenery is not going as Katherine had hoped and strange things are happening. It is as if she is two different people, one good and one bad. Will the good or the evil prevail? The plot is well thought out and moves along at a good pace.
There are enough unanswered questions to keep the reader engaged throughout. In fact, this is what I liked best about the book, the fact that Ms.
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Jaff was able to handout timely tidbits of information without spoiling the story. The flow of time and the movement between characters was superbly done. I have only one complaint. I never felt connected to Katherine like I did Margaret. Several places in the story I was wanting to know more about her. It is for this reason that my rating is 4. For more reviews, and author interviews, see my blog at www. Jun 23, Brittany rated it it was amazing. This was one I couldn't put down. Chilling, suspenseful, full of psychological terror. This fantasy novel is a sequel, but not having read the first book, it was an excellent stand alone story.
The tale is woven between seventeenth century Margaret and present day Katherine. Supernatural forces at work, both good and evil gave this a compelling and engrossing plot. Will definitely read the rest of the series. Thanks to Harper-Collins for an advanced readers copy. Jan 06, Tricia rated it it was ok. I really wanted to like this, but it just didn't work for me. The medieval story line was fell done, but it didn't add that much more depth to what we were told in "Love is Red".
And, I felt the contemporary story line veered a little too much into the horror realm without really advancing the mythology in the world-building. Wow Twists, turns, the past and the present in parallel peril. Crown of Stars continues the story a few months after we left off in Love is Red. The story alternates between Katherine, in the present, and Margaret, hundreds of years ago in a medieval English village. Katherine is trying to rebuild her life after the horrible events of last summer when she was attacked and her roommate murdered.
Her boyfrie Crown of Stars continues the story a few months after we left off in Love is Red. Her boyfriend has left her and now she discovers she is pregnant. Like the first novel in the trilogy, this is a blend of genres including elements of horror, fantasy, and the supernatural. The story was well-written and the book difficult to put down.
And for the few times I became a little confused, answers were revealed as the story progressed. There is a big cliffhanger at the end, so I am anxiously anticipating book three!