- Why it's so important that Hollywood's powerful women are standing up for all female workers
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Many of these people volunteered that cigarettes are overused props that sometimes substitute for good acting. I thought it was a prop that was unnecessary and I think it took me out of her character a lot because I felt she was leaning on it as a prop and not making a statement about the character. Smoking was not just perceived to function as a crutch for actors, but for writers as well:. It's a shorthand to character. And I think that over the last few years, people have gotten away from that crutch because: Many of these interviewees resolved the tension by limiting tobacco depiction to characters with negative traits or characters who eventually get sick from it.
The assumption seemed to be that viewers would be less inclined to imitate the behaviour of those portrayed in a negative light. Those in the second category, who were strongly committed to non-depiction of tobacco use, believe it to be nearly always inappropriate and gratuitous. Finally, there were a few who saw no difficulty whatsoever with tobacco depiction. Coming mostly from the film industry, they felt that their job was to depict reality.
I think honest depiction is more important. I think false positive images are just as harmful as negative images because they're bullshit and they're bad for the psyche. We asked our interviewees about non-depiction as well as depiction. Some of the answers simply reflected the flip-side of the reasons for portrayal. Many commented on cigarettes being overused props. Some observed that a few film studios, most notably Disney, have a cultural identity such that people working for them know, even without explicit guidelines, that most tobacco depiction is inappropriate.
Many television studios have specific policies or guidelines that restrict the portrayal of tobacco use. For example, CBS program standards state:. When the line is crossed between normal, responsible consumption of a particular substance and abuse, the distinction must be clear and the adverse consequences of abuse specifically noted and explored.
Some of our interviewees, mainly from television, had been involved in projects where either they or someone else on the project intentionally included anti-smoking content. Anti-smoking messages were conveyed either by associating smoking with negative personality traits or by driving home the adverse health consequences of tobacco use. And then has emphysema, the last stages of emphysema, and those are pretty frightening images. The California law that bans smoking in indoor work areas has also had an inhibiting effect, according to several of our interviewees, on the portrayal of smoking on television.
Within the movie industry, non-depiction usually occurs for one of two reasons. Non-depiction may occur naturally because smoking just does not fit the theme, characters, or circumstances. Alternately, tobacco use may be absent because of the strong personal beliefs of an influential writer, actor, director, or producer. Two interviewees made the point that smoking is not missed, even when the project's theme could have easily lent itself to the inclusion of smoking.
I wonder why they're not smoking? We asked respondents about the extent to which Hollywood shaped society and the extent to which it was shaped by society. The question was framed generally, without specific mention of tobacco. As expected, most interviewees began by acknowledging a reciprocal influence between society and the entertainment industry. But then on the other hand, certainly what the public responds to and watches determines what programming gets made. The easy consensus around a reciprocal influence model of the relationship between the entertainment industry and broader culture quickly dissolved, however, when questions turned to issues of responsibility.
At that point, many of our interviewees took a more unidirectional view of influence, with some emphasising the media as mirror motif and others, the media as shaper motif. Thus, when asked whether watching characters smoke influenced viewers to smoke, some respondents minimised their responsibility:. I think that if people are going to be influenced to smoke less or to start smoking or smoke cigarettes as a consequence of watching motion pictures or television, then they probably need more help than anyone can give them. Similar comments were echoed by several respondents who indicated that tobacco—because it is a less serious issue in their minds than other issues, especially violence—does not rise to a level deserving of special attention.
Although a minority, other interviewees saw themselves as highly responsible for trends in society, including the trend towards smoking among teenagers. They took this responsibility seriously and often wondered what they could do to improve the situation. A few of our interviewees reflected on the ambiguity inherent in visual images. Although they sought to be responsible in their work, they also recognised their limitations, understanding that they had little control over how it is appropriated.
You have to be very careful because. When we originally conceptualised this research project, the possible relationship between smoking on-screen and rising rates of teenage smoking was only rarely, if ever, a topic of conversation within either the entertainment or tobacco control communities. California State Senator John Burton held hearings on the issue with key industry leaders. We considered it likely that some of our interviewees might have been influenced by the public attention given to the issue.
Moreover, as they were the targets of high profile efforts to modify behaviour, we felt that the controversy might have affected their thoughts on what advocacy methods might be effective. To gauge these possibilities, we asked interviewees about their awareness of the controversy surrounding smoking on-screen, and the extent to which the topic had become a point of discussion among their colleagues.
Surprisingly, nearly half of our respondents were unaware that tobacco use depiction had become a controversial issue. Among those who were aware of the public scrutiny that had been focused on smoking in the media, responses were varied. Although some did not feel that it had had much of an impact, some, particularly from the movie industry, were angered by the attempt of politicians to influence their work, with many believing that tobacco use was a minor issue:.
I think it's a violation of our rights and it's, to me, very frightening as a society to allow that to happen. At the other end of the continuum, some, mostly from the television industry, felt that the outside pressure to change the portrayal of smoking was beneficial. The following comment is illustrative:. The whole history of our industry suggests that it's the threat of regulation that causes us to act. I'm not proud of it, but that's it. When we asked our interviewees about how best to approach the entertainment industry, the answers were again quite varied. With a few notable exceptions, most in the motion picture industry felt that neither outside pressure nor internal top-down pressure would work, and might even be counterproductive.
Most interviewees laced their responses with caveats about artistic freedom. In fact, several interviewees felt that simply posing the question of influencing the industry raised the spectre of censorship. I mean look at Standards and Practices. It's a disaster; it's not good.
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Although some within the television industry were also resistant to any outside or top-down pressure, they were more open to hierarchical structure and guidance from studios. In fact, many looked for leadership from the upper echelons of their profession. Finally, several interviewees felt that the best way to reach the industry may not be to approach the industry directly, but to continue to make progress on the issue within the general population.
They suggested that the public education campaigns about smoking had already influenced the industry and would continue to do so. A number of our interviewees mentioned various advertising campaigns put out by the California Department of Health Services, as well as state laws banning smoking in certain venues, as having had an impact on how the entertainment industry deals with smoking.
In summary, Hollywood is heterogeneous with varying perspectives on the rates of tobacco use in movies and on television, the necessity of portraying tobacco use, and Hollywood's degree of responsibility for societal smoking. Perceptions also varied on how conscious the decision was either to use or not use tobacco. The decision to portray tobacco use may originate with the writer, actor, or director, and tobacco is included most frequently to elucidate character or portray reality.
How then should these results inform the efforts of tobacco control advocates? Health advocates are currently actively encouraging a reduction in the depiction of tobacco use in film, believing that such a reduction will help to prevent or reduce smoking among the general public, especially minors. We have distilled seven key issues to consider when devising advocacy strategies. One implication this finding holds for advocates is that they will have a difficult time finding ways to reach more than small segments of the industry.
Even those who share a similar occupational role—producers, for example—do not interact or communicate frequently with others in their guild. A sustained, coordinated, multi-channel approach is clearly warranted and needed. Education of those within the industry can play an important role, because it was clear from the interviews that many within the industry had not seriously thought about tobacco.
Many of our interviewees, and particularly members of the focus group, spontaneously commented on how enlightening it had been to discuss the issue in the course of the interview. For example, the Directors, Writers, and Actors Guilds might be conduits to people working in the industry and help to encourage them to think about the impact of including tobacco use before they do so. For example, nearly all of our interviewees believe that as the broader culture has changed in its views about smoking, the industry has generally followed suit.
Those working within the film industry were particularly protective of artistic freedom, and effective influence strategies can be designed to affirm that value. The need to support artistic freedom places a burden on tobacco advocates to communicate clearly that we do not want censorship, but want instead tobacco depiction only when a project would substantially suffer without it.
Although film and television personnel abhor censorship, those in television already work under guidelines. Moreover, some interviewees thought that their colleagues would not change their behaviour unless they perceived a credible threat of regulation. Tobacco control needs members of the entertainment industry as allies. It may backfire, for example, to blame the entertainment industry for the rise in teenage smoking.
Such an attack can easily be deflected as simplistic, as broad social trends such as teenage smoking rates stem from complex webs of causal factors rather than single sources. Smoking portrayal may originate with writers, actors, or directors, although actors seem to be the most frequent source. This finding points to the necessity of working with multiple segments of the entertainment industry.
Why it's so important that Hollywood's powerful women are standing up for all female workers
As actors are the single most likely source, they may seem to be the most appropriate audience for tobacco control advocates to address. On the other hand, apart from top box-office stars, actors often feel like they are at the bottom of the power pyramid.
Although directors and producers are less likely to initially suggest tobacco use, they are more likely to have the power to determine the final outcome. Some producers, for example, simply do not allow smoking in their films. We found that on-camera tobacco portrayal occurs for three main reasons: Each of these reasons provides openings for tobacco control advocates. While technology increases demand for entertainment products and offers increased speed of delivery, the forms that make up the content are in themselves, relatively stable.
Storytelling, music, theatre, dance and games are recognisably the same as in earlier centuries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Entertainment disambiguation. Audience applauding a performance of Cavalleria Rusticana by Pietro Mascagni Banquets across 10 centuries and cultures. Musical entertainment — 10 types of audience engagement. The past gives us pleasure and is of more service than the present; but the delight of what we once felt is dimly lost never to return and its memory is as distressing as the events themselves were then delectable But when we happen to put our thoughts in writing, how easily, later on, does our mind race through an infinity of events, incessantly alive, so that a long time afterwards when we take up those written pages we can return to the same place and to the same disposition in which we once found ourselves.
I became accustomed to reading [novels] and that small fault made me cool my desire and will to do other tasks. I thought nothing of spending many hours a day and night in this vain exercise, hidden from my father. My rapture in this was so great, that unless I had a new book to read, it seemed to me that I could not be happy. William Blake 's painting of the pilgrims in The Canterbury Tales. Telling stories via Wayang golek puppets in Java.
Tosa Mitsuoki illustrating her Tale of Genji.
Home on the range: Inside the life of a female safari ranger
Dance — 10 types across 10 cultures. Animals used for entertainment. Trained monkey performing for an audience of children — Crowd watches Pharlap win the Melbourne Cup in Australia, Crowd watches a bullfight in Mexico, Fair and World's fair. Entertainment in expositions and shops. Advertisement for Paris Universal Exposition. Ball pit of the type provided for children's entertainment in shopping malls. Packaged entertainment 35mm film reels in boxes. Choosing music from a record store Germany, Ticket showing electronic barcode Valencia, Arthur Sullivan on recording music.
But all the same, I think it is the most wonderful thing that I have ever experienced, and I congratulate you with all my heart on this wonderful discovery. It also provides words like "merry-making", "pleasure", "delight", as well as "to receive as a guest and show hospitality to". It cites a usage by William Caxton. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Influences, Impacts, and Innovations Google eBook 2nd ed. Media Entertainment — the psychology of its appeal. The Psychology of Entertainment Media 2nd ed. Entertainment-Education and Social Change: History, Research, and Practice.
Digital Games and Learning. Continuum International Publishing Group. The Matrix and Philosophy.
Philosophy and the Novel. The Pocket Essential Hitchhiker's Guide 2nd ed. Philosophy and The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York: The influence of storytelling on pre-service students' attitudes and intentions MSc Thesis. Decameron and the Philosophy of Storytelling: Author as Midwife and Pimp.
New York; Chichester West Sussex: A Splintered History of Wood. Life, Death, and Entertainment in the Roman Empire. University of Michigan Press. European Culture in the Great War: The Arts, Entertainment and Propaganda, — Heinrich, Entertainment, propaganda, education: University of Hertfordshire Press. When this bloody war is over: Leisure Activities at the End of the Tsarist Era. Servants of the Dynasty: Palace Women in World History.
University of California Press. Lives of the Indian Princes. Perspectives on Korean Dance. Varieties of Experience — Sudanese Slit Drum Transcript ". History of the World in Objects. Retrieved 6 February A History of the World in objects. The Politics of the Stuart Court Masque. Schnitzler's Century — The making of middle-class culture — Pantomime and Entertainment, — The Johns Hopkins University Press. Developmental Psychology in Historical Perspective. Malden, Massachusetts; Oxford, UK: The ecology of imagination in childhood. Last Child in the Woods: Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill.
Retrieved 29 November A concise history of western music. The Book of Games: Sterling Pub Co Inc.
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London, California, New Delhi: Korea's Online Gaming Empire. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A history of reading. Superhero comics of the Golden Age: The Gospel According to Peanuts. The comic mode in English literature: The Hollywood romantic comedy: The Idea of Comedy: Rosemont Publishing and Printing Corp.
The English clown tradition from the middle ages to Shakespeare. Woodbridge Suffolk, Rochester, New York: The Cambridge introduction to Shakespeare's comedies. The role of the chou "clown" in traditional Chinese drama: A Geographic and Historical Guide. Storytelling in Japanese Art. Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Arabian nights and orientalism: A plain and literal translation of the Arabian nights' entertainments: The Arabian nights in English literature: Hawaiian Myths of Earth, Sea, and Sky. University of Hawaii Press. The Cambridge companion to Greek and Roman theatre.
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The sword giveth again". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 30 March Hit off the old block". A History of Shakespeare on Screen: A Century of Film and Television. Moments of brilliance but can't shake sinking feeling". A Dance History Reader. The history of dance. An Analysis of Country Dancing. A Dance with Jane Austen: The Treasures of Terpsichore: Sherwood, Neely and Jones. Dancing at the Crossroads: Memory and Mobility in Ireland. German Modern Dance and the Third Reich. Translated by Jonathan Steinberg English language ed. Cabaret Culture and Urban Politics, — Sha Tin, Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Motion Picture Censorship, — University of Missouri Press. Inside Hunting and Animal Rights Controversies. The University Press of Kentucky. Circus History and Representation. Victorian sensation, or, The spectacular, the shocking, and the scandalous in nineteenth-century Britain. Bailey Brothers and Swinfen Reprint. Retrieved 27 February Newton Abbot; North Pomfret, Vermont: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War.
The Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, — History of My Life, Volumes 9—10 Vol Johns Hopkins University Press. Alchemy, Bombards, and Pyrotechnics: The History of the Explosive that Changed the World. A Social History of Germany — Water Music and Music for the Royal Fireworks. History of Indian Theatre vol. Shakti Malik Abhinav Publications. Mullin, Bernard James, ed. The Tour de France: Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: The World Fairs — National Gallery of Victoria. Shopping as an Entertainment Experience. Lanham, Maryland; Plymouth, UK: Chicago Illinois Institute of Technology. Retrieved 15 November Histories of Women and Gender at World's Fairs.
University of Chicago Press. An Introduction to the Entertainment Industry. Key issues in the arts and entertainment industry. The Business of Entertainment. Greenwood Publishing Three Volumes. Retrieved 28 April The Library of Alexandria. The American University in Cairo Press.
Medina; McLaren, Brian Perception, Performance and Place English ed. The early history of radio: Institution of Electrical Engineers, in association with the Science Museum. The great radio sitcoms. Make room for TV: I probably will not renew my subscription. Total waste of money!! It used to be mandatory to pick up a copy of TV Guide at the grocery check out every week they were right by the check out but during the 's the stores stopped carrying it.
I thought it went out of print! Everybody used to buy it as a necessity and suddenly it was gone. I started getting the TV listings from the newspaper-- inferior but at least it gave a listing of TV shows. Then I saw Amazon carrying it and was overjoyed to find an old friend. Alas this old friend has turned into gutter trash! First of all the listings are in the style of the newspaper and then only partial during the evening.
No listings for daytime or late night viewing. No details about the programs. No listing of local channels. The listings are canned so the time zones don't even match! TV Guide should have gone out of print in the 's if this is what became of the once great magazine!!! Since our local newspaper stopped providing a tv guide with the Sunday edition, I have relied on this magazine to keep posted about the shows that I'd like to watch.
This was a renewal for me at an attractive price. See all 1, reviews. Most recent customer reviews. Published 1 day ago. Published 2 days ago. Published 10 days ago. Published 17 days ago. Published 22 days ago. Published 24 days ago. Published 28 days ago. Published 1 month ago. Feedback If you have a question or problem, visit our Help pages.
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